The Netherlands Institute for the Near East

Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten  -  Institut néerlandais du Proche-Orient

Book Specifications
col. 1-292 pp.
softcover

Bibliotheca Orientalis LXXI, 1/2 (2014)

2014  |  BiOr Volume 71 1/2

Articles

Rinsveld, B. Van – Le marché local au carrefour de l’égyptologie, de l’économie et de l’histoire. À propos d’un livre récent

C’est depuis les dernières années du XXème siècle, avec la mondialisation et l’éclipse partielle des états dans la gouvernance financière, que le débat interdisciplinaire à propos de l’économie en Égypte pharaonique et du rôle du marché en particulier s’est intensifié. Des documents et résultats d’études de monuments et de fouilles sont réexaminés avec de nouvelles questions; des fouilles récentes se font aussi dans une autre optique. Après un siècle d’absence, le comparatisme fait son retour dans l’orientalisme. C’est toute l’«exception» de l’Égypte qui s’en trouve ébranlée tant par l’ouverture au monde proche-oriental, là où l’histoire religieuse était principalement pratiquée, que par le désenclavement également opéré dans l’étude du commerce dans le monde grec. Il faut bien garder à l’esprit que la critique historique mise en œuvre ne dépend pas d’une grande ancienneté «dépaysante» mais de la quantité et de la diversité des sources dont on dispose. Dans cette optique, la parution d’un livre sur le commerce et le marché était l’occasion de suivre un historien pas à pas dans sa démarche pour faire un bilan des nouvelles recherches historiques dans les domaines qu’il aborde.

Keetman, J. – Der altsumerische Name /pa-gbilga-mes/ = Gilgameš

The reading and understanding of the name Gilgamesh has some bearing on the history of literature. Does it conceal a hidden message? Is it a foreign name or is it just a normal Sumerian name from the brink of history? This article tries to answer this by comparing the first attestation with Sumerian names of the same time. The use and identity of signs is not taken from sign lists but by using synchronic texts wherever possible. It becomes clear that Gilgamesh was a name within the pattern of Early Dynastic Sumerian names, meaning roughly ‘the forebear (was) a prince(?)’. Concerning the pronunciation a new argument for the existence of a velar-labial explosive in Sumerian is found. The name may be pronounced like /pa-gbilga-mes/ but a shortened form like /gbilga-mes/ may be as old as the first attestation in ED IIIa Fāra. The article is closing with a few words about the name Enkidu.

Driessen, P. – The variability in the realization of qāf in present day Palestinian Arabic. A statistical analysis of data gathered with the help of social media

Palestinian Arabic is the language spoken by Palestinians and is classified as a dialect subgroup of Levantine Arabic. It does however vary in several aspects, one of these is the realization of qāf which is realized as a voiceless uvular plosive /q/ in Modern Standard Arabic. Qāf is realized in several ways in present-day Palestinian Arabic. This leads to the question, ‘What explains this variability in the realization of qāf in present-day Palestinian Arabic?’ This paper will try to formulate an answer to this question. First, I use existing literature to determine which realizations of qāf are being used by Palestinians and which variables might possibly influence the realization. In the next part I try to determine what the effect is that every one of these variables has on the realization of qāf. This is done through the analysis of quantitative data which have been gathered with help of social media. The statistical analysis program SPSS and Google Earth are used for this analysis.

Colominas Aparicio, M., et al. – Talismanic Use of Sūra 59: A Probable Case from the Indonesian Archipelago

This article presents a critical edition of item 0-691, an Arabic manuscript from the collection of the Tropenmuseum, part of the Royal Tropical Institute in Amsterdam (KIT, Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen to refer to both museum and the institute. We therefore use ‘KIT collection’ in the text to refer to the collection of the Tropenmuseum.). This is an undated manuscript of unknown origin that hitherto has not been described. In the study preceding our edition of the text, we propose both a place of origin and a probable function of item 0-691. The manuscript’s content and physical characteristics, as well as similarities with other manuscripts, suggest that the most likely region of origin is the Indonesian archipelago, and, more specifically, the region of Aceh. In terms of its primary use, we argue that item 0-691 is a Qur'ānic talisman, and not a letter, as it is currently described in the catalogue of the KIT collection.

  • The manuscript on the website of NMVW (formerly KIT): click here (collection detail page in Dutch).

Book reviews and announcements

Faraonisch Egypte, Grieks-Romeins Egypte, Assyriologie, Hettitologie, Semitica, Archeologie, Iranica, Turcica, Islam, Varia

 

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